Prostatitis: Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

male prostate

Male prostatitis is an inflammatory process involving prostate tissue. The disease is accompanied by pain in the lower back, perineum, and pelvis. The main symptoms are perineal pain and lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Of all the urological disorders, prostatitis is most commonly encountered by urologists. It can develop unexpectedly (acutely) in the context of general health, or last for a long time with periods of exacerbation and remission, indicating a chronic course. In addition, the second variant of the disease was diagnosed more frequently.

The disease is independent, and can also be combined with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer.

Development reasons

Inflammation does not appear on its own. The etiology of prostatitis can be divided into bacterial and non-bacterial.

Acute infectious variants usually occur in men under the age of 35 due to damage to the prostate gland by Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Enterobacter). In addition, inflammation occurs due to infection with sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea, chlamydia. In the chronic form, there may be more causes and the list will include atypical microorganisms.

Predisposing factors for the development of bacterial variants are:

  • unprotected sex;
  • AIDS or HIV infection;
  • diarrhea or constipation;
  • anal sex;
  • a sedentary lifestyle;
  • inactive sex life;
  • diabetes;
  • low temperature;
  • Violation of privacy.

A chronic form of noninfectious prostatitis was detected in men who complained of prolonged pain in the genitals, but the tests did not diagnose the bacteria that could cause the inflammation.

The exact cause of the development of this type of prostatitis has not been studied, but triggering factors are:

  • emotional disturbance;
  • autoimmune disease;
  • increase physical activity;
  • lack of regular sex;
  • work related to weightlifting;
  • chronic stress;
  • Prostate tissue congestion;
  • Previously demonstrated changes in prostate fibrosis (according to TRUS results).

Inactive sex, unprotected sex, and hypothermia are thought to play an important role in the emergence of the disease. Symptoms of prostatitis occur at least once in a lifetime in 50% of the entire male population on Earth.

Symptoms of acute prostatitis

Acute prostatitis occurs in several stages, which can move from one stage to another if you do not contact a specialist and stop the development of the disease in time.

The first stage is called acute catarrhal prostatitis. It starts with frequent complaints of painful urination. In the lower back and sacrum and perineum, there is mild pain at first and then increases rapidly.

If left untreated, the second stage - acute follicles occurs. At this point, the pain becomes particularly severe, radiating to the anus and worsening with bowel movements. Urination is very difficult and sometimes acute urinary retention occurs. The temperature does not exceed 38 degrees, and only on rare occasions it will be higher.

Acute parenchymal prostatitis manifests as severe poisoning, with a body temperature of 38°C and above, and chills. Urinary retention, sharp throbbing pain in the perineum, and difficulty in defecation are frequently observed.

Symptoms of chronic prostatitis

Sometimes chronic prostatitis occurs in the context of an acute inflammatory process. This is a separate disease in which there is a major chronic course that develops over a long period of time.

Often, the chronic course begins as a complication of the inflammatory process caused by various infectious agents (Chlamydia, Trichomonas, Neisseria gonorrhoeae). Vivid manifestations, however, are very rare and are more commonly seen with mild pain during urination or in the perineum and a small amount of discharge from the urethra. Often, these manifestations are not noticed even by patients for extended periods of time.

Symptoms of prostatitis in men can appear in different ways, but they all fall into three groups—pain syndrome, urination disturbance, and sex problems. Prostate tissue doesn't have receptors, so they can't feel pain. They arise when inflammation begins to metastasize to richly innervated pelvic organs. A patient's pain can vary—from barely noticeable discomfort to intense, severe pain that disrupts sleep and habitual lifestyles. The pain can radiate to the sacrum, scrotum, lower back, perineum, so self-diagnosis is not helpful here.

Urinary problems begin as the prostate increases in volume and begins to squeeze the urethra, reducing the lumen of the ureter. Frequent urination and a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. Often, such phenomena manifest at the onset of the disease, in its early stages, they are then compensated by the body, but in later stages, without proper treatment, they reappear.

The question of male potency can also be expressed in different ways. Patients complain of worsening erections, accelerated ejaculation, and decreased sexual arousal. Gradually, sexual dysfunction becomes more pronounced, and in advanced stages, symptoms of prostatitis are supplemented by impotence.

possible complications

In the inflammatory process of the prostate, adjacent organs are also involved in the pathological process. This can lead to various consequences of prostatitis, such as:

  • seminal vesiculitis;
  • Posterior urethritis or colitis;
  • an abscess in the gland itself;
  • sclerosis or fibrosis of the prostate;
  • Cysts and stones of the prostate;
  • infertility;
  • Ejaculation disorders;
  • Erectile Dysfunction.

To prevent the development of these serious complications, you should contact your urologist at the first symptoms of prostatitis and prostate adenoma.


Urologists are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of any form of prostatitis. If a tumor is suspected, the patient may be referred for consultation with an oncologist. For chronic, long-term prostatitis that is difficult to treat, consultation with an immunologist may be necessary.

Unique clinical manifestations and patient complaints facilitate rapid and accurate diagnosis. The list of mandatory studies in the diagnosis of prostatitis is as follows:

  1. Urine bacteriological culture.
  2. Analysis of microbial communities and susceptibility to antibiotics in prostatic secretions.
  3. Rectal prostate exam.
  4. Ultrasound of the prostate, which can identify tumors, cysts, adenomas, and differentiate prostatitis from other urological diseases.
  5. Sperm tests to rule out infertility.

It is difficult to independently determine the causes of diseases, and even more difficult to cure them. Therefore, to prevent serious complications and not maintain infertility in the future, men should contact a urologist as soon as they show signs of the disease.


Patients diagnosed with acute prostatitis without complications were treated on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization will only be performed if there are severe symptoms of poisoning and a suspected purulent process.

Antibiotics are the drug of choice to fight inflammation. They are also used in chronic bacterial form. Drugs are selected individually, and the course of treatment is 4-6 weeks. In severe cases, antibacterials are administered intravenously, in all other cases - orally, in the form of capsules or tablets.

Another drug used for prostatitis is an alpha1-blocker, prescribed in the presence of residual urine confirmed by ultrasound. They help promote urination and relax the muscles of the prostate and bladder. NSAIDs help relieve pain.

Treatment of prostatitis can only be done comprehensively and consistently. In addition to medication, doctors will prescribe a course of prostate massage and use physical therapy to improve blood circulation to this organ. Surgery is used only when there is a seminal vesicle abscess and suppuration.

Prediction and Prevention

The untreated acute form usually becomes chronic, with periodic exacerbations. Full recovery is not always possible, however, prompt medical attention and taking all prescribed medications can eliminate discomfort, urination problems, and pain.

Self-medication at home and the use of folk methods are often life-threatening.

To prevent prostatitis, it is recommended to avoid hypothermia, empty the bladder in time, limit the use of coffee, spices, and alcohol, and stay sexually active for as long as possible.